By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language research. it's also appropriate to be used because the fundamental textual content in a direction on Polish morphology (although workouts would have to be supplied via the instructor).
Phonological and morphological methods are given specific therapy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation goal at a whole description of all commonplace and so much abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of kinds are liberally supplemented with comments referring to derivation, utilization, and modifications among Polish and English.
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Extra info for A concise grammar of Polish
Masculine nouns. Masc. I: Basic type: masculine nouns with -Ø ending in nominative singular. g. chłop ‘peasant’. Masc. II: Secondary type: masculine nouns with the nominative singular ending in a vowel (either -a or rarely -o). g. turysta ‘tourist’. B. Feminine nouns. Fem. I: Basic type: feminine nouns with the nominative singular ending in a vowel (-a or exceptionally -i). g. ryba ‘fish’. Fem. II: Secondary type: feminine nouns with a zero-ending (-Ø) in the nominative singular. The preceding consonant is always of the soft type (including both historical and synchronic softs).
Examples follow, with morphemes separated due to the complexity of these alternations: Prefixal Vowel Alternant Before C/C Root Prefixal Zero Alternant Before C/V/C Root od/e/-b/r-a-ć 'select' roz/e-r/w-a-ć 'tear up' z/e/-p/r-a-ć 'wash out' z/e/-p/ch-ną-ć 'push down' w/e/s-t/ch-ną-ć 'sigh' od-bi/e/r-a-ć (od/-bi/er-aj-ą) roz-r/y/w-a-ć (roz/-r/y/w-aj-ą) s/-pi/e/r-a-ć (s/-pi/e/r-aj-ą) s/-p/y/ch-a-ć (s/-p/y/ch-aj-ą) w/z-d/y/ch-a-ć (w/z-dych-aj-ą) 37 It might be noted that this alternation may be considered either inflectional or derivational, depending on whether the perfective and imperfective forms are considered the same or different lexical items.
Danie ‘food course’/zdjęcie ‘photograph’ N A G L D I V Sing. -e = Nsg. -a -u = Lsg. -em = Nsg. Plur. -a = Npl. -Ø -ach -om -ami = Npl. N A G L D I V Singular danie/zdjęcie = Nsg. dania/słowa daniu/zdjęciu = Lsg. daniem/zdjęciem = Nsg. Plural dania/zdjęcia = Npl. dań/zdjęć daniach/zdjęciach daniom/zdjęciom daniami/zdjęciami = Npl. Lexical neuter exceptions One of the major neuter exceptions to the above pattern includes nouns which have the genitive plural -y/-i ending, instead of zero. It tends to occur in derived neuters, particularly those which have an obviously recognizable prefix and a soft stem-final, such as narzędzie ‘tool’, przedpole ‘foreground’.
A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan