By Daniel Sivan
Ugaritic, found in 1929, is a North-West Semitic language, documented on clay drugs (about 1250 texts) and dated from the interval among the 14th and the twelfth centuries B.C.E. The files are of varied varieties: literary, administrative, lexicological. a variety of Ugaritic capsules include parts of a poetic cycle bearing on the Ugaritic pantheon. one other half, the executive records make clear the association of Ugarit, therefore contributing vastly to our figuring out of the background and tradition of the biblical and North-West Semitic international. this crucial reference paintings, a revised and translated version of the author's Hebrew ebook (Beer Sheva, 1993), offers with the phonology, morphology and syntax of Ugaritic. The publication comprises additionally an appendix with textual content choices.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch der Orientalistik)
6. Proper names comprised of two components joined by the tpiconjunction (such as @n rer 'amv) are taken here as two entities, though there are those who prefer to see them as one. This is noted in the discussion of the various dual forms. This page intentionally left blank CHAPTER ONE ORTHOGRAPHY The Ugaritic alphabet contains 30 cuneiform signs which express 27 consonantal phonemes. g. 17). The following are the cuneiform signs according to that order as found in those texts with their equivalents in Latin characters and the accepted diacritical marks below: T i s h UTf S U E w r ~ 9 - f d ~ h TTT "Iw 1 m _ d n z ht I(: Y C s 1.
V Table of consonants including transcriptions in Egyptian of Northwest Semitic words. * = deviations from Proto-Semitic. PHONOLOGY General Remarks Understanding the vowel system is perhaps the most diXicult problem in the study of Ugaritic. Apart from the three aleph-signs, the Ugaritic alphabet does not indicate vowels. O n the basis of the three aleph-signs it is assumed that the Proto-Semitic vowel system did not undergo change in Ugaritic (apart from the contractions to be discussed below).
114,8). However, it is also possible that two roots were in use in Ugaritic, namely HLM and TLM and both served in suppletion (cf. HLK and YIX in Ugaritic and in Biblical Hebrew; cf. Ginsberg 1936:76). It would appear that the consonant h elides from the root HDT "to lacerate, to cut" (cf. 5 VI,18; cf. 5 VI, 19). g. 30,16,18) but w m [ ? , p. 23,46) but w n [ ? 4 IV,50; cf. Garr 1986:52 n. 50); p n [ ? 1l4,l2; cf. Rainey 1974:186; but the word could be a verbal form of the root P M "to turn", cf.
A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch der Orientalistik) by Daniel Sivan