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By Habibullah Tegey - Barbara Robson

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In contrast, early lexicographers had no qualms about citing Ḥadīṯ to prove the existence of a certain word or clarify its meaning, probably on the assumption that for this specific purpose it makes little difference whether the Ḥadīṯ was transmitted verbatim or as paraphrased. In other words, the lexicographers might have assumed that even if Ḥadīṯ was not transmitted verbatim, change would primarily affect its structure; whereas lexical items – particularly those which constitute the šawāhid – are likely to be retained by the transmitter.

Iṣfahānī, Aġānī IV, 375; V, 238. 172 Ibn Rašīq, ʿUmda I, 90. early lexicographical activity 35 is reported to have said that had Aḫṭal (d. 173 Precedence here most probably refers to the linguistic, rather than the artistic value of Aḫṭal’s poetry, given Abū ʿAmr’s predominantly philological interests. Moreover, Aṣmaʿī (d. 174 The general preference of Ǧāhilī poetry to Islamic poetry in relation to linguistic testimony explains why Baššār b. Burd (d. e. 176 But even if Abū ʿAmr’s extreme position is not taken into account, the general consensus, which left the corpus open for prose or ordinary speech till the end of the fourth/tenth century with regard to the Aʿrāb, was to discontinue the contribution of poetry to the linguistic corpus more than two centuries prior to that.

141 His position vis-à-vis the naḥārīr is matched in the Kitāb, at the level of grammatical 139 Ḫalīl, ʿAyn I, 52, 53; cf. Baalbaki (2008: 20, 50–51, 224–225). , I, 53. , I, 60. 142 Prompted by their interest in the structural regularities of Arabic, the naḥwiyyūn were accused by Sībawayhi of using qiyās (analogy) in a purely speculative manner in order to invent forms and utterances which do bear resemblance to actual usage, but which should be rejected because they do not occur in the speech of the Arabs.

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A Reference Grammar of Pashto by Habibullah Tegey - Barbara Robson

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