By Antony Alcock (auth.)
In this paintings, Antony Alcock recounts the old improvement of Europe from the Greek urban states via to the 2000 great Treaty on ecu Integration and the assault on big apple of eleven September 2001. This brief historical past of Europe is advised easily and accessibly, but offers the political, financial, social and cultural context for Europe's expanding integration, in accordance with the 3 pillars of Greek political inspiration, Roman legislation and the Christian faith, together with research of latest fabric, Antony Alcock brings his background absolutely up to date taking a look at such matters because the cave in of Yugoslavia, immigration and asylum seekers and eventually attention of the way forward for Europe within the 21st century.
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Extra info for A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the Present Day
Angered at the refusal of the eastern Emperor, Marcian, to continue paying subsidies, their leader Attila invaded the west, first overthrowing the Burgundians and then advancing on, but failing to take, Paris. 23 Forced to withdraw, Attila first ravaged northern Italy and then continued east, going back to Hungary. But when Attila died his sons quarrelled over the inheritance; the Germanic tribes in his empire revolted and the Hunnic Empire dissolved, the remnants merging with Ugrian tribes to form part of a Bulgar state in southern Russia, their end unlamented.
Under the Empire, apart from ordinances of the Senate and the edicts of magistrates the most prolific sources of law were the imperial `constitutions', of which there were three branches. Edicts were general laws ordered by the Emperor. Rescripts were formal answers to questions put to him either by private individuals or public bodies. Decrees were judgements or decisions given by the Emperor in lawsuits brought before him as supreme magistrate either in first instance or appeal. From the beginning Roman law laid down a number of principles that are the basis of justice today: that every citizen is equal before the law; that he or she must know the charge against him or her; that the accused has the right to defend him or herself or be defended at public expense if need be; that the burden of proof should lie with the plaintiff rather than the defendant; that people of unsound mind could not be held legally responsible for their actions; that there should be a statute of limitation (twenty years for criminal offences); that the notion of intent in the commission of a crime was important.
What Constantine did do was treat Christianity as his favoured religion. He lavished gifts on the Church. The clergy was exempted from taxation and the jurisdiction of secular courts if accused of civil Christianity 41 crimes. He allowed high church dignitaries to become part of the civil administration. And he donated the Lateran Palace in Rome to the Bishop of Rome. It was Constantine who changed the date of Christmas Day, originally celebrated on 6 January, to 25 December, the most important day of the year for the cult of the Unconquered Sun, since it was from then on that the sun began to be reborn as the days grew longer.
A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the Present Day by Antony Alcock (auth.)