By Yiping Huang
The winning agricultural reform conducted in China within the Nineteen Seventies all started encountering mounting problems from the mid-1980s, as progress premiums dropped and costs elevated sharply. This learn analyzes different reform measures brought in China long ago 20 years, and gives an entire research of the prevailing agricultural approach. via cautious exam of the political financial system and different coverage innovations, the writer argues that China may still push ahead with its market-oriented reform measures and introduce the pains of overseas pageant into the rural region.
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Extra info for Agricultural Reform in China: Getting Institutions Right (Trade and Development)
Collectivisation of agricultural production Shortly after the communist government came to power, it introduced national land reform to keep political promises made during the civil war. The programme started in June 1950 and was completed by Institutional distortions in pre-reform agriculture 27 September 1952. Estimates are that about 300 million farmers acquired some 700 million mu (or 47 million hectares) of arable land (S. Guo et al. 1989). After acquiring land poor peasants fared much better, and farmhands became producers.
In one major study on China's collectivisation, Lin (1991c) compared the performance of collectivisation before and after 1958. He argued that the cause of the agricultural crisis in 1959-61 was the change from voluntary to compulsory collectivisation in 1958, rather than alternatives frequently advanced, such as bad weather, bad management and incentive problems associated with the unwieldy size of collectives. The egalitarian component of the production team distribution system further worsened the situation (Chinn 1980; Putterman 1987, 1990).
This is one reason why the inward-looking approach (or the import-substitution strategy) was widely adopted among developing economies in the 1950s and early 1960s. But experiences of post-war economic development have provided dear evidence of the inefficiencies of dirigiste strategies. None of the economies which adopted inward-looking policies has delivered sustained rapid economic growth. After forty years virtually no dirigiste economy had significantly changed its world income ranking. In sharp contrast, economies that adopted an outward-looking approach, mainly the East Asian economies and others like Botswana, Malta and Mauritius, achieved extraordinary economic growth in the post-war period (World Bank 1994; Hughes 1995).
Agricultural Reform in China: Getting Institutions Right (Trade and Development) by Yiping Huang