By Singh, Rajendra
The main primary class of human cognition and motion, and all human languages have built many units to precise it. those contain verbal different types, akin to stressful and point, but additionally adverbials, debris, and rules of discourse agency. This booklet is meant as an educational for the examine of ways time is expressed in usual languages. Its chapters take the reader via a couple of foundational concerns, comparable to a number of the notions of time and a few of the capacity to precise it; different chapters are dedicated to extra particular questions, reminiscent of the purchase of time, its modelling in formal semantics and in computational linguistics, or how its expression may be empirically investigated.
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Extra resources for Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2008
Ishk-phishk to ham jaˆnte nahıˆN bhaˆˆı interr fut to-him ? – love. – love-echo top we know not brother ‘– what is happening to him ? – love. – love and what so, we don’t un derstand, brother (we know nothing about all this crap)’ b. ‘vah lekhak hai’. lekhak-vekhak hai, yah sab unkıˆ samajh meN aˆtaˆ na hıˆN thaˆ ‘he writer-echo is’. writer-echo is, this all his mind in come not impft ‘ ‘He is a writer’. He could be a so-called writer, that was meaningless for her’ Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 45 c.
Taˆsh-vaˆsh khelne kıˆ bajaˆy apnaˆ kaˆm khatm karo card-echo play instead refl work ﬁnish do ‘instead of losing your time in playing cards (or similar stupid games) / these damned cards, you should ﬁnish your work’ b. koıˆ lekin-vekin nahıˆN indef but-echo neg ‘there is no ‘but’, stop escaping’ Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 43 c. mere paˆs Taim-vaim nahıˆN hai of-me near time(Engl)-echo neg est ‘I have no time to lose (stop hassling me please)’ d. kripayaˆ jab tak main huˆN nayaˆ-vayaˆ nahıˆN niklegaˆ, go-out-fut please till I am new-echo neg jismeN roz khaˆte haiN usıˆ meN khaˆeNge in-which everyday eat that in will-eat ‘please, till I am here, do not take out the new plates, we will eat in the plates we use everyday’ The statement in (18b) quotes a previously uttered ‘‘but’’ in order to disqualify it, but (18a) and (18c) simply refer to a notion which is new in the context, new but presented as triggering disagreement: the v- echo that modiﬁes the original form F in F-F 0 betrays the altercation of two di¤erent viewpoints at odds, A trying to invalidate B’s supposed idea on the matter.
1. Nouns and numerals Distribution is the most frequent meaning, often considered as prototypical for the nominal class. In its restricted meaning (for each X, n Y), it however 24 Annie Montaut occurs only with numerals, where R involves more than one relation with the other constituents, which makes it more complex even if it is perceived as more basic. 1. The typically distributive meaning: Numeral-numeral nom Apart from the iteration of the process for each occurrence of the beneﬁciary in (1a), ‘‘give one X (to¤ee) to each Y (child)’’, hence the possible commutation of (1a) with statements having the indeﬁnite har ‘each’ (2a), the reduplication of the numeral acts on the scheme of the individuation of Y (n occurrences of ‘‘child’’) as well as that of X (n occurrences of ‘‘to¤ee’’)4: (1) a.
Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics, 2008 by Singh, Rajendra