By Harry Stroomer
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Extra info for Ḥarsūsī texts from Oman: based on the field materials of T.M. Johnstone
Potential Problems My analysis raises two potential problems which should be dealt with before we move on to other matters. First, the postulation of the high tone as the "default" tone in Igbo contradicts the claim of Pulleyblank (1986) that the default tone is, universally, low. Secondly, I have not yet accounted for the existence of a third tonal class of verb roots in some Central dialects, including Mbäise. 1. Igbo and the Notion of a Universal Default Tone Under the proposal of Yip (1980), tone is specified by a c o m bination of two features, which, following Pulleyblank (1986), I will refer to as [ U P P E R ] and [RAISED], Under this f e a t u r e system, the tones of a language with a four-way tonal contrast would be represented as follows: (40) Η = [+UPPER, +RAISED] Μ = [-UPPER,+RAISED] Η L = = [+UPPER,-RAISED] ["UPPER,-RAISED] Pulleyblank (1986:125-133) argues that the universal default value for the feature [UPPER] is "-", while that for the feature [RAISED] is "+" and that languages which use only one tonal f e a t u r e m u s t choose the feature [UPPER].
1 6 In addition, this analysis would not account for the lowering of the invariant-high roots after a low-toned root in examples like Chapter 2: The Nature of the Tonal Representation 39 the following, in which the "invariant high" root gbu 'kill' becomes low-toned after the low-toned root dhä 'fall on': (43) ί-dhä-gbij 'to kill by falling on' (/- 'aff. ' + dhä 'fall' + gbu 'kill') ( cf. i'-kwu-gbii 'to kill by hanging' ] ( r 'aff. infinitive' + kwu 'hang' + gbu 'kill') J If gbu were underlyingly high-toned, then the output melody of (43) would be *i-dhä-gbü, rather than i-dhä-gbü.
According to my analysis, this verb has the tonal representation shown below, with one high tone on the verb prefix, and another spread across the syllables of the stem: (56) e'-mechile I u ^ Η Η The evidence for this representation comes, so far, f r o m two sources: (i) this is the melody which is generated by the independently motivated rules of the grammar, and (ii) this is the melody which is required by my analysis of downstep. ' + kwu 'speak' + -la 'imperative') and for the General Negative verb a-'-fufay/'didn't contribute' (a- 'neg' + tu 'throw' + -fa 'direction' + -y; 'neg.
Ḥarsūsī texts from Oman: based on the field materials of T.M. Johnstone by Harry Stroomer