By George Jack
Beowulf, the foremost surviving poem in outdated English, consists in a language that's wealthy yet usually tough. This totally annotated variation makes the poem extra obtainable in its unique language, whereas whilst offering the fabrics helpful for its particular examine at either undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. To facilitate figuring out and fluent studying of the poem, the previous English textual content of Beowulf is right here followed via an intensive operating word list consisting of the better a part of the vocabulary of the poem. phrases that take place greater than as soon as are glossed on each one get together. The inclusion of marginal glosses will permit readers who might be at an early degree within the research of outdated English to manage extra simply with the advanced vocabulary of the poem. yet this version isn't really intended just for people who find themselves coming near near outdated English for the 1st time; it truly is designed to be compatible for college students at any degree, and people who are already acquainted with previous English will locate the marginal glosses of price in allowing Beowulf to be learn extra fluently. George Jack's advent considers the origins and transmission of the poem, and offers a survey of its narrative materials and magnificence. a whole remark on textual and interpretative difficulties, issues of grammar and that means, and concerns of literary and historic context is equipped, as is a advisor to additional analyzing on Beowulf. The textual content of the Finnsburh Fragment has additionally been integrated, as a result of its certain relevance to Beowulf, and it's likewise followed by means of marginal glosses and notes.
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Extra resources for Beowulf - A Student Edition
Proper names are listed in the Index of Names (pp. 229-32 below), and are not included in the running glosses. Within the running glosses, inflected words are generally cited in the form that would provide the headword in a conventional glossary—usually the nominative singular of nouns, the strong masculine nominative singular of adjectives, and the infinitive of verbs. At line 29, for instance, the glosses for the noun gesifras and the adjective swczse, both of which are plural, cite their nominative singular forms geslfr and swces, and at line 12 the gloss for the past participle cenned cites the infinitive cennan.
But this produces a mixed construction, for ponne ‘than’ requires a comparative form preceding it and micel (69) is not comparative. There is no good evidence that a con struction of this kind was idiomatic in OE (Mitchell 1985: ii. §§3213-14), and it is preferable to retain the manuscript reading, as Robinson proposed. 74-5 Da . . ’ BEOWULF 33 folcstede fraetwan. Him on fyrste gelomp, folcstede people’s place; frcetwan adorn; fyrst time; gelimpan (ill) happen; cedre swiftly; ylde (pi) men; ealgearo fully ready healcern (n) hall; scop (pa sg) assigned geweald power aedre mid yldum, t>aet hit weard ealgearo, healaerna maest; scop him Heort naman se 80 his wordes geweald wide haefde.
At line 29, for instance, the glosses for the noun gesifras and the adjective swczse, both of which are plural, cite their nominative singular forms geslfr and swces, and at line 12 the gloss for the past participle cenned cites the infinitive cennan. It is assumed that readers will be acquainted with the common inflectional patterns of Old English and will recognize -as in gesifras and -e in swcese as plural endings, and -ed in cenned as the ending of a past participle. The form that appears in the text may in some instances differ from the nominative singular or infinitive not only in its inflection, but also through some associated change in a vowel or consonant, resulting from processes that are common in Old English.
Beowulf - A Student Edition by George Jack