By Anthony Charles Neville
This booklet tackles an enormous unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure outdoor cells? The underlying speculation of this ebook is that the fibers are oriented by means of self-assembly simply outdoors the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline section sooner than stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most common orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers. ultimately, he exhibits that those should be imitated within the laboratory by means of liquid crystalline chemical compounds. Many nice pictures will relief the initiated in spotting some of the varieties of fibers.
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Extra info for Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane
For a thought-provoking review comparing self-assembly with template directed assembly at various levels in the structural hierarchy of plant cell walls, see Jarvis (1992). 2. Having defined some principles and some types of architecture, we may next survey the distribution of fibrous composites in living systems. 2 The occurrence of fibrous composites This chapter presents a wide range of examples of fibrous com posites in animals and plants. A sensible amount of such 'stamp collecting' is justified because it shows the widespread distribu types) in biological systems.
6. 6. Species of vertebrates for which electron micrographs indicate helicoidal structure, either as arced patterns or (L) as laminations Species Fish (A) Cyno/ebias belotti (eggshell) (A) Agonus cataphractus (eggshell) (A) Merlangius merlangus (eggshell) (A) Lutjanus analis (eggshell} Sa/mo sa/ar (eggshell) Gadus morrhua (eggshell) (A) P/euronectes platessa (eggshell) (A) Sa/mo gairdneri (eggshell) (A) Limanda limanda (eggshell) (L) Creni/abrus melops (eggshell) (L) Creni/abrus cinereus (eggshell) (L) Creni/abrus mediterraneus (eggshell) (L) Creni/abrus exoletus (eggshell) (L) Crenilabrus rupestris (eggshell) (L) Platichthys flesus (eggshell) (L) Hippoglossoides platessoides (eggshell) (A) (A) (A) Goldfish, sp.
The collagen fibril directions of tadpole epidermal base ment lamella are precise. 9 (Overton, 1976). The basic orthogonal pattern is modified according to the shape of the tadpole. The paper by Weiss and Ferris (1956) on collagen fibril direc tions in the basement lamella of axolotl larvae (Amblystoma) during repair after wounding was for me a landmark. I became aware of the work through the influential book by Picken (1962) and read it in the early sixties when I was beginning work on chitin fibril directions in insect cuticles.
Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane by Anthony Charles Neville