By John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)
The demanding clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is a crucial advertisement, leisure and ecological inhabitant of coastal bays alongside the east and gulf coasts of the USA. This name represents the 1st state-of-the-art precis of current wisdom of the tough clam by means of specialists in a number of disciplines. Containing a compendium of literature at the difficult clam, complete chapters on a variety of points of its biology in addition to summaries of data together with the grey literature in this economically vital species, this quantity represents a finished resource of organic details for managers and researchers attracted to shallow marine and estuarine ecosystems. study scholars and bosses charged with preserving coastal ecosystems also will discover a wealth of heritage fabric. the 1st synthesis of obtainable details at the mercenaria mercenaria, this identify is a reaction to the wishes of people inquisitive about difficult clam aquaculture and scientists attracted to molluscan biology, coastal ocean ecology and comparable fields. Over 2300 files were synthesized, and bankruptcy authors have further unpublished info in addition to new fabric.
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Extra resources for Biology of the Hard Clam
Malformed specimens of M. mercenaria are fairly rare. A few show an irregular tippling of the shell as if it were affected from nestling among rocks (Fig. 11). One intriguing malformation causes one valve to become flattened, while the other forms an obese cup (Fig. 12); it is unclear whether the origins are pathogenic or genetic. A specimen of the closely related southern hard clam (Fig. 13) shows a radial tippling reminiscent of certain malformed specimens of the extinct M. corrugata (Lamarck, 1818), below.
Ducateli (60 mm, length) occurs in the lower Miocene of New Jersey and Maryland and is sculptured with prominent, moderately to closely spaced, recurved concentric lamellae that are more elevated and lamellate posteriorly; it is orbicular, deep and compressed, with a blunt rather than angular posterior end, and has a narrow rugose area on the nymph. Another Miocene suborbicular species with prominent concentric sculpture is M. ) nannodes (Gardner, 1926) (synonym Venus alumbluffensis Palmer, 1927).
Securis, but the fight anterior cardinal appears partially connected to the hinge margin in M. ) securis, but well separated and curved in M. ) clallamensis. ) juanensis closely resembles M. ) cryptolineata, but because material available for study by Parker (1949) was eroded and deformed, he did not attempt to subsume it under that species. ) panzana is similar to the Miocene species M. ) ensifera but is more elongate; the closely similar species delineated by Adegoke (1969) above represent the more elongate representatives of Miocene Mercenaria (Securella).
Biology of the Hard Clam by John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)